“There is talk of great fear for the spread of false information”
In Lyon, a university professor discovered that his students had cheated using the artificial intelligence software ChatGPT. But between the increase in the computing power of machines, the evolution of computers, and the availability of enormous amounts of information and data on the Internet… What is artificial intelligence today?
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“Artificial intelligence as we see it in the media, currently, we talk about machine learning or machine learning. And this automatic learning, it’s simple, it’s the ability that certain software will have to learn, that is to say, to learn from examples”explains Nils Schaetti, researcher in artificial intelligence. “For example, we want to have software that is able to recognize photos of dogs and cats, to classify them automatically. We will provide him with examples of photos of dogs and cats, we will give him the answers we expect from him and at the end of the learning process, we will have software that will be able to recognize photos of cats that he has never seen before.”
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The idea of an extra-human consciousness dates back to antiquity and the myth of artificial intelligence has largely nourished literature, especially science fiction. “Frankenstein is quite an example. It is in the concept of artificial intelligence. It is an artificial being which, as we often see in literature, will begin to become independent and to rebel against its creator”continues the researcher.
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As a field of research, artificial intelligence emerged in the 1950s with the invention of the first computers. The objective: to simulate human capacities on a machine. One of the turning points in the history of artificial intelligence took place in 1997, when Garry Kasparov, then world chess champion, lost against Deep Blue, a supercomputer developed by IBM. “What the program was doing when it was playing against Kasparov was that it was going to look for almost everything, a maximum, of all possible moves, in fact, that could also be made by its opponent. And then then he was going to find the one that was most likely, that was going to lead him to victory in the most likely way. And there, we didn’t have so many machine learning methods, there wasn’t so much machine learning.”
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It is necessary to wait about twenty years before attending another key moment. In 2015, AlphaGo software, a machine learning program, beat a professional go player. “We make her play against herself and when she plays against herself, she will learn strategies. She will learn to recognize moves that are extremely complex and then apply them in different contexts that will lead her to victory. We had a lot of machine learning, we had a lot of learning in AlphaGo and we see that it worked, that it works a lot, because the game of go, in fact, is much more complex than the game of chess”adds Nils Schaetti.
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With the increase in the computing power of machines and access to astronomical amounts of data thanks to the Internet, artificial intelligence opens up possibilities that still seemed impossible a few years ago. As an example, the ChatGPT software. “ChatGPT is called a language model. We will say to him, for example: ‘I have a sentence, I want you to predict the next word.’ For example, I have a ‘Hi, How do you…’, and then afterwards, I have ‘go’. And then in fact, the program, the software, it will learn over hundreds, hundreds of thousands, even billions of examples to predict the next word. And so, it gives us, in the end, a system that is really capable of having a conversation with a human being in a convincing way.”
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To combat cheating, New York City Public Schools decided to ban students and teachers from using ChatGPT. “He’s going to be able to provide an answer that’s convincing in terms of language, but in terms of information that’s not always going to be correct. For example, I did a test on ChatGPT. I wanted him to give me ideas for a science fiction novel. I realized pretty quickly that he actually had three or four ideas and if you ask him to generate more ideas, he’s going to keep repeating the same thing over and over again.”
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“The problems with GPT and this kind of technology is that we have a passion which is really important for this kind of technology. Everyone thinks it’s absolutely fantastic. And it’s fantastic because it gives abilities in a lot of areas that are really incredible. On the other hand, we talk very, very little about the potential problems for security and for the propagation of false information”concludes the researcher.
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