Who invented Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is today at the very center of our existence. A real tool at the service of new technologies, artificial intelligence offers users a unique experience based on the resolution of various problems by logic. The behavior of the machines is also compared to that of real humans. But what exactly is artificial intelligence? When did it first appear? What is its history since its creation? Overview.

Artificial intelligence: definition

Artificial intelligence, also called computer intelligence, aims to mimic the behavior of the brain when making decisions. This term then includes the theories and techniques used to produce machines capable of simulating intelligence.” Various techniques are then put in place to allow the machines to mimic real intelligence.

Artificial intelligence: birth of a concept in the middle of the 20th century

The first time we hear about artificial intelligence dates back to the 50s. We owe this new term to Alan Turing, great mathematician. In 1950, he published an article entitled ” Computing Machinery and Intelligence » in which he discusses his intention to give machines the capacity for intelligence. This is where the concept of Turing-test, which then makes it possible to identify the capacity of a machine to hold a human conversation, more or less perfect. Thus, if a person is unable to tell whether he has conversed with another individual or a machine, then the Turing test is passed.

The appearance of artificial intelligence is also attributed to Warren Weaver in 1949 and his idea that machines could automatically translate foreign-language text.

But it’s in 1956 that artificial intelligence established itself as a real scientific field worldwide. Subsequently, the prestigious universities of the United States will study artificial intelligence.

The evolution of artificial intelligence until the 2000s

Very quickly, artificial intelligence remains a domain reserved for the Department of Defense, in the United States. This technological revolution is on the rise and many experts believe that artificial intelligence will dominate the world in the 2000s.

But at the dawn of the 1970s came the period called ” AI Winter (the winter of artificial intelligence). This means that this concept loses its luster. The projects do not succeed, despite very expensive investments. Thus, investors abandon AI for a while to focus on projects with concrete results.

In the 80s, the AI ​​regained its image. The market is around$1 billion and is then enough to re-motivate investors who again inject funds into projects surrounding artificial intelligence.
Moore’s Law, created in 1965 by Doctor Gordon E. Moore, surrounds the evolution of the computing power of computers and the complexity of computing tools. This law then allows experts to put AI at the service of very specific fields: data collection and storage (data mining), medical, etc.

1997: Deep Blue defeats the chess champion

It is an eagerly awaited event. We are in 1997. IBM, a multinational specializing in computer tools, launches the Deep Blue. It is a supercomputer almost two meters high and weighing more than 700 kilos, specialized in the game of chess. To demonstrate its performance, two matches of six games were organized between the Deep Blue machine and the reigning world chess champion: Garry Kasparov.

The first match took place in 1996, in Philadelphia. Gary Kasparov wins four of six games. The second match took place in 1997 in New York. This is the consecration: the machine wins the match with a score of 3.5 against 2.5 for the world champion.

The 2000s: AI at the heart of society

With the progress and multiple technological innovations of the 21st century, artificial intelligence has become a social issue. This science is also the central subject of many films, one of which is very well known: Matrix.
Afterwards, The Internet is becoming more democratic to the point that most households now have a computer and an Internet connection. The mass production of computers then makes them more financially accessible. There are all kinds of them, of various capacities and performances. For some countries, like North Korea for example, artificial intelligence is scary and must have limits. Indeed, the question arises as to how far machines can take precedence over the real intelligence of humans.

From the 2010s, deep learning and machine learning are emerging. These are processes that allow machines to learn rules to operate.

Today artificial intelligence is even taking hold of digital giants (Amazon, Facebook, etc.), which invest in large-scale projects, sometimes forgetting their core business. Little by little, AI is interfering in every branch of our daily lives and particularly within startups, anxious to respond to current environmental or societal issues through technology.

(Photo credit: iStock).

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Who invented Artificial Intelligence?

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