3D cook, nano-doctor… “The industrial revolution is coming” and with it, the professions of

According to one Dell study published in 2017, 85% of the professions that will be exercised in 2030 do not yet exist. Based on this observation, Nicolas Hazard, author of What are we going to do with you?released in 2021 by Flammarion, tried to describe what these jobs of the future will look like, in the era of artificial intelligence (AI).

His book also raises the issue of training. Because who says new jobs, says new courses of study. As part of the “France 2030” investment plan presented a year ago by Emmanuel Macronthe State plans to invest 2 billion euros to “accelerate the diagnosis of needs, the creation or adaptation of training to the skills needs of new sectors and professions of the future”.

How can the education and university system adapt? What course should you take to have a chance of getting a job in ten years? Some answers with Nicolas Hazard, entrepreneur and founder of INCO, a company that trained 200,000 people last year in the jobs of tomorrow.

Read also: Teacher, driver, maintenance worker… Which professions will recruit the most in 2030?

In your book, you write that the fourth industrial revolution will upset the world of work. How ?

Many professions will disappear and appear. Others, already existing, will be transformed in depth. And for once, blue-collar workers will not be the only ones affected. In previous industrial revolutions, advances in robotics led to the replacement of workers by machines. This time, the development of artificial intelligence will impact more business sectors and white-collar workers will also be affected: accountants, lawyers, radiologists, etc. Everyone will also have to adapt to the world of tomorrow.

Your book What are we going to do with you? outlines the profile of twenty-one professions that do not yet exist, or barely exist, for example?

3D chef, robot trainer, depolluter… The idea was to project ourselves 10 or 20 years from now to show what the economy of tomorrow will look like. Sometimes, we are close to science fiction even if we start from a base of technological evolution that exists, with people who are already revolutionizing their profession. In video games, with the arrival of the metaverse, the profession of meta-architect is beginning to emerge. I also speak of the example of Rémi, nano-doctor at Caen hospital (Calvados). He was one of the first in Europe to perform a remote operation.

You then talk about the need for a new educational revolution. What does this imply ?

The break will take place in the way people are trained. Until now, to accumulate the stock of knowledge, the teacher taught knowledge to be learned by heart, on which the student was evaluated. This vertical learning should evolve. Tomorrow, we will learn more knowledge, but skills. In short: learning to learn.

That’s to say ?

Current studies show that a young person entering university today will have worked on average between eight and ten different jobs by the time they turn 40. With technological change and the evolution of the labor market, we are tending towards the end of the triptych: studying, having a job and doing it until retirement. Tomorrow, we will practice professions that will evolve regularly. You will have to learn to adapt, train throughout your life, go back to school regularly to work again. And so on.

What might school learning look like according to this logic?

In primary school, it will be necessary to adapt the way of teaching, in particular with technologies. With digital tablets, today’s children are already immersed in it. Looking at Pisa rankings (International Program for Student Assessment), we see that the Finns and the Estonians are placed very high. In their systems, young people learn to read and write one year later than their European peers. Yet they are very strong. Why ? The teacher supervises his class, and encourages the pupils to discover the letters, the numbers, by themselves. They learn to adapt very early.

The Ministry of Higher Education is considering the training of the future, developing courses that do not yet exist. To which course could students or high school students choose to get a job in 10 or 20 years?

Today, with the development of artificial intelligence, jobs around digital and Tech occupy an important place in the labor market. Science, math and chemistry students already have a chance of finding a well-paid job.

But other new jobs will also require having exclusively human skills, which robots do not have: communication, analytical skills, critical thinking. In the fields of art, sport, journalism, crafts, training for the future will enable workers to play a more important role in tomorrow’s society. Today, we also see a trend: students are looking for meaning. They want to have a positive impact by working. The sectors around sustainable development will grow.

Is the idea of ​​training all one’s life within everyone’s reach? In a career, professional retraining is not always easy. So if you have to consider several…

Attention ! It’s not something I want, it’s more of an observation of what’s to come. Those who don’t will have great difficulty finding a job. Today, no one really takes to heart the fact that it is already necessary to mobilize around the training of tomorrow. We are waiting for this to happen. But the coming industrial revolution is going to be very impressive!

Nevertheless, reading your essay, you seem optimistic. Why ?

The idea of ​​the book was to show that there are a lot of fantasies around the fourth industrial revolution. We think that artificial intelligence will take our jobs, control our lives. It can be scary. But AI will create a lot of jobs and generate professional opportunities. On the other hand, I am optimistic but not fooled: we have the conditions to succeed in a more inclusive and sustainable economy tomorrow, but we have to prepare for it and roll up our sleeves to meet the challenge.

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3D cook, nano-doctor… “The industrial revolution is coming” and with it, the professions of


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