Study – Artificial intelligence, a political subject » PACA’s economic and political newsletter

The main powers in the world and the positioning of France [Eclairages et propositions].

Artificial Intelligence, a political subject (SKEMA)

As the new global AI meeting, the “World Artificial Intelligence Cannes Festival”, opens on April 14, 2022 in Cannes, the think tank SKEMA PUBLIKA publishes a new note on artificial intelligence: “artificial intelligence: a political subject.
What are the main powers in AI in the world? What positioning for France in AI? are the questions answered by this 10-page note (uncertainties collection) established on the basis of the report “Artificial intelligence, technologies and key players” produced by several professors-researchers in innovation management and data sciences within SKEMA: Ludovic Dibbiaggio and Lionel Nesta as well as data scientist Mohamed Keita.

“The aim here is to provide public and private decision-makers with a historical perspective of the strategic positioning of the leading countries in AI for 30 years, essential for informed decision-making on future choices in terms of investments, organization and cooperation” say Claude Revel, director of development at SKEMA Publika and Ludovic Dibiaggio, professor at SKEMA Business School who wrote the report.

The note and the report provide a number of insights:

– Over the past 30 years, the leading countries in terms of patent production are the United States (30%), China (26%), Japan (12%), South Korea (6%), Germany (5%), the United Kingdom (2.5%), France (2.4%) and Canada (1.9%). The United States and Asian powers alone account for nearly three-quarters of the AI ​​innovation market. With more than half of the global market share, the United States and China assert their dominance.

– According to the Tortoise Global AI Index 2021, which rates nations based on their level of investment, innovation and implementation of artificial intelligence, the United States and China retain their top two spots. Canada takes 4th place. It ranks first in government strategy (ahead of China) and 6th in business strategy. France and Germany for their part descend in the overall ranking to reach 9th and 10th places, just after the Netherlands. However, France has risen to 5th place in the world in terms of government strategy, ahead of the United States and Germany, for example.

– In April 2021, the European Union published its new coordinated plan for artificial intelligence between the European Commission and the Member States. It builds on the first coordinated AI plan of 2018. The objectives include accelerating investments and aligning AI policy to eliminate fragmentation. However, in a field where investment costs are so colossal, French and European decision-makers are subject to “path dependence”: their future strategic choices are constrained by past choices that commit them for the long term. They must therefore have a detailed knowledge of the comparative advantages of their countries and of competing countries in areas relevant to AI in order to target specific investments enabling them to provide the quantitative effort necessary to increase their market share in the areas of AI. sectors deemed key.

The note and the report also emanate several recommendations for decision-makers:

Create the conditions for effective technology transfer between French public and private players, to make France a competitive AI player beyond the European continent.

Although ranked 7th in number of product patents, French private players are struggling to compete with American, Chinese or even German players, as evidenced by the absence of national private players in the world’s top 20 largest producers of AI patents. However, France is the leader in European public innovation with six research organizations present in the top 10 of European public actors.

France is characterized by strong public research in the field of AI. Also, the public decision-maker must rely on this research to create the conditions for a technology transfer to players closer to the markets.

Build national AI policies around the specificities of each country’s national innovation systems.

The articulation between public and private actors in particular is specific to each region of the world and to each country. The patterns of interaction encountered are of a great variety. This is even more evident if we look at the link between the national dominant firms and the specializations of the countries. However, the organization of AI innovation is a crucial element that must drive public policy choices.

The articulation between public and private actors in particular is specific to each region of the world and to each country. The patterns of interaction encountered are of a great variety. This is even more evident if we look at the link between the national dominant firms and the specializations of the countries. However, the organization of AI innovation is a crucial element that must drive public policy choices.
The diversity of national innovation systems invites us to remain circumspect with regard to policies supporting artificial intelligence, which would consist in imitating the policies implemented in a benchmark country. On the contrary, such diversity implies that these policies cannot operate above ground, without relying on key national players, and by exploiting the complementarities between the most promising scientific, technological and functional fields for the country.

Imagine and build a European model of AI innovation adapted to the diversity of its States, to improve Europe’s global positioning.

Two observations lead the authors to make this recommendation. The first observation is that Europe is not ahead of the global competition in terms of AI. Indeed, on the one hand, only two European companies are among the major players in AI. On the other hand, European companies produce far fewer patents than American and Asian giants. A quantitative effort is needed.
The second observation is that there is great heterogeneity between the different national innovation systems in the field of AI. This is illustrated by the radical differences in the organization of innovation in France and Germany, particularly in terms of the articulation between private and public actors and the opposing forms of their respective collaborative networks.
To build its comparative advantages, Europe must therefore consider building a European model of innovation in the field of AI. However, the differences observed, in particular between the German and French innovation systems, call into question the feasibility and coherence of a European model. Would such a system be efficient? How could it strengthen the specializations of key European players, public and private? It is up to public decision-makers to answer these questions, to imagine innovative organizations, it being now recognized that being excluded from future developments in artificial intelligence would be synonymous with a loss of influence at the international level and future economic autonomy.

Anticipate the impacts of AI on innovation activities and on the labor market.

The gains expected from AI, such as business productivity or the creation of new markets, must be assessed against the expected costs. The difficulties raised by the development of digital technologies in general, and AI in particular, should not be underestimated. The effects of the reallocation of capital and labor between companies and between sectors remain to be assessed, and involve significant adjustment costs generated by AI, incurred by companies and workers. The greatest impacts of AI are expected for innovation activities and labor demand from firms.
Companies must therefore adjust their economic model, make the necessary additional investments, and adapt their technical skills and human capital. For their part, the public authorities must adjust the regulations in force, and ensure a training offer that accompanies the development of AI, by investing in scientific and technological infrastructures.
SKEMA PUBLIKA is an independent think tank whose objective is to produce international thinking, accessible and far from formatted codes, to fuel public debate and better inform national and international decision-makers upstream. Backed by SKEMA Business School, the think tank addresses political and societal issues relating to public policies, on which SKEMA has a right to express itself. It approaches them from the angle of precursory signs, anticipates and formulates recommendations for “the after”. It adopts a multidisciplinary and hybrid approach to information processing, combining human and digital intelligence. It is based on the international and transcultural dimension of SKEMA, present on five continents and rich in thousands of students and hundreds of researchers.

To download the note on AI from the SKEMA Publika website: https://publika.skema.edu/fr/accueil/
To download the full AI report from the SKEMA Knowledge site: https://knowledge.skema-bs.fr/

About SKEMA Business School

With 9,500 students of more than 120 nationalities and 50,000 graduates present in 145 countries, SKEMA Business School is a global school which, through its research, more than 70 teaching programs and its international multi-site structure trains and educates the talents whose businesses of the 21st century need. The school is now present on 7 sites in 5 countries: 3 campuses in France (Lille, Sophia-Antipolis, Paris), 1 in China (Suzhou), 1 in the United States (Raleigh), 1 in Brazil (Belo Horizonte ) and 1 in South Africa (Stellenbosch).
The 180 professors in the Faculty are divided into 3 academies (Globalisation, Innovation, digitalisation). Research has 5 centers which represent the main dimensions of management. The school has also set up its Artificial Intelligence research and resource center in Montreal.
SKEMA Ventures, SKEMA’s incubation-acceleration system has more than 200 incubated projects.
SKEMA is multi-accredited – Equis, AACSB and EFMD Accredited EMBA. Its programs are recognized in France (Visa, Degree of License, Degree of Master, RNCP, CGE label), as well as in the United States (Licensing), in Brazil (Certificação) and in China (Recognition of the Ministry of Education) . www.skema-bs.fr. Follow us on twitter: @SKEMA_BS

We would love to give thanks to the writer of this post for this outstanding content

Study – Artificial intelligence, a political subject » PACA’s economic and political newsletter


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